All listenership, readership, viewership rates for specific media outlets in these articles represents the habits of regular media users and not the overall population.

The survey referenced in these articles was designed to capture information based on the population distribution of recent media consumers: “what are the demographics of those who have watched TV, listened to the radio, read a newspaper in the past week” as opposed to what percentage of the adult population has watched TV or listened to the radio.


World Bank Country Profile and Projects_Mozambique

World Bank Knowledge Economy Index

WHO Health Statistics- Mozambique

UNESCO Edcuation Statistics

UNDP Human Development Indicators- Mozambique

Amnesty International- Mozambique

Global Voices- Mozambique Mozambique Statistics

Freedom House Map of Press Freedom 2009

World Bank Governance Matters Indicators

Mozambique The HIV/AIDS Challenge : Who is Most at Risk and How Can We Get More Information to Them


Key Recommendations for Developing a Communication Strategy to Combat HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

  • HIV/AIDS is a major threat to the well-being of Mozambicans, not to mention to the country’s economic and social development.
  •  Increasing scientific knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its consequences, and the best practices for controlling it, is crucial for combating the spread of the disease. To this end, employing popular and most-used media outlets that Mozambicans rely on (primarily radio stations and SMS) to target specific demographic groups at risk might be valuable. The communication strategy (which medium to use, when to use it, etc.) might vary slightly between target groups, but radio remains the most effective medium to reach a wide variety of target groups. Radio stations that these groups (women, youth, etc.) most listen to might vary.
  • Women and youth/young adults (Y/YAs) are most at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS and all communication strategies must be formulated with them in mind.  
  • Girls and young women are more vulnerable to contracting HIV because they often lack the power to refuse unsafe sex, choose their partners and generally influence sexual behavior. As a result of economic development and greater tourist activity in the southern and central provinces of Mozambique, women are also more likely to be infected through sex trafficking. 
  • Transmitting information to women in Mozambique represents a challenge. While parts of the country where AIDS is most prevalent (South and Central) are more economically developed, women still have limited access to media other than radio. In this context, development organizations need to focus on information dissemination via radio stations that women are most likely to listen to, coupled with more direct and interpersonal communication. Education programs that use drama and music performed in local communities or transmitted through community radio stations may also be effective. 
  • In addition, the majority of new HIV infections occur among those under the age of 29.  UNICEF reports that children and adolescents are also particularly vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. In 2010, it is estimated that more than 95,000 young people aged 15 to 19 are living with HIV in Mozambique. Levels of HIV/AIDS awareness among youth in Mozambique were not as high as those in many other African countries according to UN study. (UNAIDS, 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, July 2004).
  • For Y/YAs, the communication strategy needs to be multi-layered. Like all Mozambicans, they listen to radio as their primary information medium, but they also show higher than average internet use and are more likely than older Mozambicans to send text messages, read newspapers online and listen to radio via their mobile phones. To target them, development practitioners can use a combination of radio as well as new media such as SMS text messages and posting information on newspaper websites. 
  • The ways women and Y/YAs listen to radio are also quite distinct and any communication initiative must consider their different listening habits. Survey results also show that, when listening to the radio, women are less interested in political news and are more likely to prefer international broadcasts as well as radio stations that broadcast in their vernacular languages. Those between the ages of 15-24, on the other hand, prefer “more music, less talk.” They are least likely to be interested in political news and broadcasts in vernacular languages. Instead, their preference for international broadcast stations is higher than the national average.
Also See
Communicating About AIDS with Youth in Mozambique
Communicating About AIDS with Women in Mozambique


Mozambique has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV in the world -- close to 13 (in 2008) percent of the adult population
aged 15 to 49 years is infected.  Despite political will from the government and the presence of numerous NGOs trying to combat and reduce the spread of this epidemic, prevalence rates have remained the same for the past few years. 

In fact, research presented by the University of California-San Francisco (UCSF) suggests that even though the national HIV-prevalence rate has remained stable between 2004 and 2007, this masks varying regional trends, such as the increased prevalence in southern and central Mozambique and the relative decrease in the North.  At the provincial level, the highest HIV-prevalence rates are in Sofala, followed by Manica and Maputo; the lowest rates were found in Cabo Delgado and Nampula provinces in the North.

In the last decade, government economic reforms and aid/donor assistance has fostered economic progress (especially in the South and Center) and increased the mobility of people to neighboring countries and across provinces. The North still remains somewhat isolated from this trend. The central provinces host the transport corridors from neighboring countries to the ports of Nacala and Beira. Sofala, in particular, has one of the highest prevalence rates in the country. Increased mobility, accompanied by increased sexual risk, especially multiple concurrent partnerships, has led to this part of the country becoming a HIV/AIDS hotbed.

The epidemic has reduced life expectancy from 41 years in 1999 to 38 years in 2004. UNICEF reports that, on average, 500 new infections occur every day, 90 of them among young children through mother-to-child transmission. Approximately 1.6 million Mozambicans are living with HIV or AIDS .

A study conducted under the APPLE project initiated by CARE during October and November 2005 shows that the following are some of the main causes of HIV/AIDS spread

  • High mobility of people within provinces in the South, migration to South Africa and the influx of migrant labor.
  • Transport corridors in Central Mozambique, from neighboring countries to the ports, encouraging increased trade and tourism-related activities.  
  • Inadequate and inaccessible health services.
  • Existence of transactional sex hotspots in tourist attractions such as Inhumbane province and Maputo city.
  •  Highly vulnerable youth and women, and-mother-to child transmissions.

Youth/young adults (Y/YA) and women are the demographic groups most at risk for HIV/AIDS infection in Mozambique.  Girls and young women are more vulnerable to infection because they often lack the power to refuse unsafe sex, choose their partners, generally influence sexual behavior and are biologically more vulnerable to infection. Women account for more than half of adults estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique -- 57 percent according to the IMF. UNICEF estimates that 810,000 women in Mozambique are infected.

In addition, the majority of new HIV infections occur among those 29 years old and younger. UNICEF reports that children and adolescents are also particularly vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. In 2010, it is estimated that more than 95,000 young people aged 15 to 19 are living with HIV in Mozambique.  In the age groups 15-19 and 20-24, the prevalence rate for girls and young women is three times higher than that of boys and young men. In 2004, HIV/AIDS prevalence was 2.6 percent among 15-19 year-old boys and 6.9 percent among 20-24 year-old men compared to 8.1 percent and 20.9 percent among girls and women of those age groups.

Disseminating more information and increasing knowledge among these target groups is crucial to protect them against the disease. Although efforts toward behavior change through more information have been attempted by many NGOs, this has not yet resulted in significant decrease in HIV prevalence.  A 2004 UNAIDS study (Source: UNAIDS, 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, July 2004) among young people aged 15-24 in Mozambique found that more than two-thirds of young men (71 percent) and 62 percent of young women knew that a healthy person could be infected with HIV, but these levels of awareness were not as high as in many other African countries.

This article tracks information and communication habits of women and youth/young adults (defined as 15-24 and 25-34 in this media diary survey) in order to assist development professionals in crafting their communication strategies for HIV/AIDS control. Communication access and use trends are based on the 2009 Synovate/Steadman Media Diary Survey.

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Pictures Courtesy: tonrulkens via Flickr

Information was sourced from

Mozambique Aids Profile/Summary from University of California, San Francisco


APPLE project- CARE Final Report