- Development Context: Internal and External Crises
- The Media Environment and Development Efforts
- Differences Across Regions
- Socio-Economic Differences in Media Access
- Radio: The Key to Communicating with Chadians
- Reaching Out to Women in Chad
- Media Outlet Matrix
- Country Statistics
- Survey Methodology
World Bank Country Profile and Projects_Chad
Chad Media Outlet Matrix
Most Often Used Media Outlets in Chad
Radio is the main means of mass communication in Chad, but strong government control of the broadcast media precludes diverse or dissenting views. Station licenses are granted by the HCC, which is considered to be greatly influenced by the government.
State-run Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne operates national and regional radio stations. A few private radio stations are on the air, although they have to pay high licensing fees. Some of them are run by non-profit groups, but reach only specific regions from which they broadcast. However some of these radio stations are key information sources within their regions.
The only national television station, Teletchad, is state-owned and its coverage is supportive of the government. Among television viewers with the ability to receive international channels, Al Jazeera (Arabic Version), France 24 and TV5 (French Channels) are popular.
Private newspapers critical of the government circulate freely in the capital, N'Djamena, but have little impact among the largely rural and illiterate population. There are no reports that the government restricts internet access, but the internet infrastructure remains government owned, and less than 1 percent of the population had access to this resource in 2008.
The government press agency publishes the daily news bulletin Info-Tchad. Other publications include the weekly N’Djamena Hebdo, and the monthly Tchad Et Culture.
State-run Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne is the only Chadian radio station with a national reach. Other stations with national reach are the international broadcasters- Radio France International and BBC (see chart 1)
Regional Breakdown of Radio Listenership
Regions: Chari-Bargirimi, Logone Oriental, Logone Occidental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Tandjille
Regions: Guera, Ouaddai, Salamat
Regions: Lac, Kanem, Batha, Wadi-Firi
Regions in Chad
Chad has 18 regions- of which 4 new regions were added recently by dividing already existing regions. The BBC 2009 survey used the older division of 14 regions based on the latest available census for the purpose of conducting this survey. We divided each of these regions into four sectors for the purpose of analysis- Northern, South/Southwestern, Eastern and Central.
See table to left for how we divided the 14 regions into 4 sectors
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Reaching Out to Chadians: Regional Media and Development in Chad
Note: These sectoral divisions created for the purpose of this report are not completely in sync with the specific geography or climate of Chad, since climate can vary drastically within some of the larger regions or overlap across the borders of regions, thereby also affecting level of agriculture and subsequent economic development. But in essence, these sectoral divisions are intended to illustrate the specific issues Chad faces across different regions.
Table 2 (Right)
There are regional listenership differences for the national-reach stations particularly RNT, (see table 2). Other radio stations, generally run by non-profits (generally FM stations with limited reach) were only accessible to populations within the region they broadcast (this is discussed within each region below).
Listenership to the state-run RNT also varies across each region, as shown in Chart 3. Listenership was higher in the East and the Center where non-profit radio stations were limited or inaccessible.
South and Southwest Chad: Chari-Baguirmi, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari and Tandjile
The Southwestern sector of Chad contains the capital N’Djamena in the Chari-Baguirmi region, which is economically more developed than the rest of the country. Radio listenership is highest in this sector compared to other sectors.
Capital Region: Province Chari Baguirmi
Many private/community radio stations broadcasting out of the capital region in the south/southwestern sector are popular there but inaccessible to the rest of the country. They are run by nonprofit organizations, religious institutions and other non-governmental entities. Average listenership of state-run RNT is lowest in the south/southwestern region because there are more stations available (see chart 2 above).
The charts below show listenership of the leading radio stations in the south/southwestern section.
Chart 3, 4 and 5
FM Liberté has high listenership in Chari-Baguirmi (Chart 3). It is a radio station owned by a group of human rights organizations and broadcast from N'Djamena. It was launched to provide general news and information with a particular emphasis on human rights and governance. FM Liberté had not received any foreign funding since 2003, but received some funding for repairing their transmitters from Reporters Sans Frontiers in 2009.
FM Harmonie (Chart 4) was launched by the cultural association Harmonie and is financed by the French Embassy of Chad. It broadcasts from the capital and mainly promotes the French language and Chad's cultural identity. Dja FM (Chart 5, right) was the first privately-owned radio station in Ndjamena and is targeted at youth and women. The programming includes news and interactive shows in French and Arabic broadcast for over 60 hours a week.
Other stations such as Al Nassour (FM 102.10 from N’Djamena) and La Voix de l'Esperance(FM 91 from N’Djamena) are also popular in Chari-Baguirmi (Charts 6 and 7 below).
Other Regions in the Central Sector: Moyen Chari, Logone and Tandjile
Chart 8,9 and 10 (below)
Radio Lotiko (Chart 8), most listened to in Moyen Chari, actually broadcasts from two towns in that region – Sarh (FM 97.6) and Koumra (FM 100.10).
Duji Lokar (Chart 9) broadcasts from Mondou- the capital of Logone Occidental at FM 108.20, and hence is most listened to in that region as well as the neighboring Logone Oriental.
La Voix du Paysan (Chart 10, right) broadcasts from Doba, the capital of Logone Oriental at FM 92.20. It is owned by the Catholic Church and broadcasts locally produced programming in French and indigenous languages from Doba over a 140-mile range.
Most Listened to Private Radio Stations in Tandjile
Effata Radio (Chart 11) is a religious (Christian) community station broadcasting in the region of the Tandjilé at 98.0 FM. Listenership is highest in this Tandjile region as well as in neighboring Mayo-Kebbi. According to the station's website, they target youth in these regions.
Chart 11, 12
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Reaching Out to Chadians: Regional Media and Development in Chad
There are estimated to be close to 270,000 Sudanese refugees in Eastern Chad and to close to 170,000 internally displaced Chadians. This complex emergency (in addition to 81,000 Central African Republic refugees in the South) affects local agriculture, livestock rearing and other livelihood activities.
Listenership to the nationally available, state run RNT is highest in the East. The East lacks the range of non-profit FM stations we see in the South/Southwest, and state run RNT (SW broadcast) is the only source of information for the largely illiterate and poor population here.
In an attempt to fill a large information and knowledge gap, some small community radio stations have been set up recently in the Ouddai region by nonprofit groups (listenership for these stations is not available in the survey). Most of these stations do not have national reach, but they serve an important purpose in the easternmost remote regions where information sources are indeed very scarce.
Starting in 2005, Internews built three community radio stations- Radio Absoun, Radio Sila and La Voix du Ouaddaï - along the Chad-Sudan border and trained local journalists to run them. The stations give Darfur refugees and displaced Chadians access to news that directly affects their survival, including information on security, food rations, and water distribution, as well as general news about their home areas. The stations also serve as a communication channel between relief agencies and camp dwellers. Another issue that they address through their programming is gender-based violence through special programming on women’s issues.
*weekly listenership for these Internews radio stations was not available, for more information click here.
The Central sector of the country is part of the pan-African subtropical climate band called the Sahel region. This region in Chad is at risk of a severe famine affecting 2 million people, according to an assessment in December 2009 by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). The impact of poor cereal harvests and poor rainfall are greatly exacerbated by the refugee situation.
Weekly radio listenership in Central Chad is close to the national average but is largely limited to SW/AM stations such as the state-run RNT (see Chart 2 above). BBC and other international stations have a limited reach here, and there is a real lack of non-profit stations in this region.
Especially given the current situation of famine, malnutrition and other health concerns, sources of information- both formal and informal are vital. In addition to the various food security programs and relief work, this sector will also greatly benefit from community radio stations informing them about relief operations, food security programs.
Regions Excluded From the Survey:
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region split into:
o Borkou Region (containing the former Borkou Department)
o Ennedi Region (containing the former Ennedi Est Department and Ennedi Ouest Department)
o Tibesti Region (containing the Tibesti Department)
was excluded in this survey due to logistical and security issues.
* Barh El Gazel Region (containing the former Barh El Gazel Department) was split from Kanem Region but was included in the Kanem region in the survey
* Sila Region (containing the former Djourf Al Ahmar Department and Sila Department) was split from Ouaddaï Region, but were included within Ouddai for this survey.
*The region of N'Djamena is ruled under a separate law, which is written down in the constitution, in the year 1996. The region of N’Djamena is further divided into 47 sections. But for the purpose of this survey, it was included within Chari-Baguirmi.
All information in this report was also sourced from
IREX Media Sustainablility Index (Africa)- Chad http://www.irex.org/programs/MSI_Africa/2008/chad.asp
BBC Country Profile- Chad http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1068700.stm
Radio France International - http://www.english.rfi.fr/africa
"Assistance for local radio stations under threat in Chad and Honduras", Reporters Sans Frontiers.February 1, 2010. Available at http://en.rsf.org/assistance-for-local-radio-01-02-2010,36259.html
Chad Climate Change Country Profile. UNDP Accessed from http://ncsp.undp.org/document/undp-climate-change-country-profile-0
Chad- Complex Emergency USAID. Accessed from
Panos Newsletter. Accessed here http://www.panosparis.org/gb/newsletter_gb_16.php
Chad Profile-State Department- http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2001/af/8307.htm
Diocese of Lai, Accessed from http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://dioceselai.com/activites.php%3Flangue%3DES&ei=OhEATPSaJoO88gaCi_HWDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBgQ7gEwAA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Deffata%2Btandjile%2Bchad%26hl%3Den